Title:Transfersomes: The Ultra-Deformable Carrier System for Non-Invasive Delivery of Drug VOLUME: 17 Author(s):Ritika Gupta* and Amrish Kumar Affiliation:Department of Pharmacy, School of Medical and Allied Sciences, Galgotias University, Plot No. The prepared formulations had been characterized for the loaded drug amount and vesicle size.
Transfersomes were prepared by thin film hydration technique, using soy phosphatidylcholine and sodium cholate, combined with high-pressure homogenization. Transfersomes’ inherent potential advantages are highly utilized in ‘Transdermal Immunization’, ‘Peripheral Drug Targeting’ & for ‘Transdermal Delivery ‘of Insulin, NSAIDs, Heparin, Anti Cancer drugs, etc.
Combinations of non-ionic surfactants are used to spontaneously produce vesicles, optionally without the use of organic solvents. Short precorneal residence time and poor transocular membrane permeability are the major challenges associated with topical ocular drug delivery.
We describe the formulation and several biologic characteristics of interleukin-2 (IL-2)- and interferon-α (IFNα)-containing TFs. Transfersomes were characterized for particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP), entrapment efficiency, surface morphology, and in vitro skin permeation studies. Transfersomes can be used for delivery of insulin, corticosteroids, proteins and peptides, interferons, anti-cancer drugs, anaesthetics, NSAIDs and herbal drugs. Image Formation • The SEM image is a 2D intensity map in the analog or digital domain. Transfersomes can deform and pass through narrow constriction (from 5 to 10 times less than their own diameter) without measurable loss. Transfersomes and the liposomes having the addition of edge activator like span 60, Span80, span25, tween80, and Sodium deoxycholate and sodium cholate. Preparation of Transfersomes Transfersomes containing Celecoxib were prepared with slight modification [13-15]. Transfersomes are vesicular drug delivery system having almost same structure like liposomes, but with better skin penetration properties to deliver the drugs at deeper skin tissues.
Transfersomes provide a drug developer with a freely movable carrier which has its own, non-metabolic means of locomotion through the partly hydrated skin layers. Transfersomes are reported to improve in-vitro skin delivery (12-15) and in-vivo penetration to achieve therapeutic amounts that are comparable with subcutaneous injection (16-17). Niosomes (the nonionic surfactant vesicles), considered as novel drug delivery systems, can improve the solubility and stability of natural pharmaceutical molecules. Furthermore, if available, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these systems are also described for each of the formulations.
AmB-transfersomes possessed good permeability across mouse skin (4.91 ± 0.41 μg/cm2/h) and 10-fold higher permeability across synthetic Strat-M membranes. An effort to explain the deeper penetration of transfersomes across the epidermis layer by its pharmacokinetics and dynamic properties has been taken.
Resealed Erythrocytes as Drug Carrier 18.
The nail acts as a hydrophilic gel network through which the transfersome carrier can easily traverse, increasing drug concentration in the nail bed. A novel vesicular drug carrier system called transfersomes, which is composed of phospholipid, surfactant, and water for enhanced transdermal delivery. Transfersomes are applied in a non-occluded method to the skin and have been shown to permeate through the stratum corneum lipid lamellar regions as a result of the hydration or osmotic force in the skin. Laser confocal microscope was employed to dynamically observe the effects of transfersomal gel carrying 5-FU at different time points. This review mainly focuses on the clinical trial studies and patents accessible on transfersomal products worldwide, highlights the recent work on transfersomes with various therapeutic agents. Transfersomes are a form of elastic or deformable vesicle, which were first introduced in the early 1990s.
Transfersomes morphology The transfersomes morphology was observed by using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Transfersomes also can encapsulate molecules with various solubility properties and can protect drugs against metabolic degradation. Paclitaxelloaded transfersomes (FS-2) shows the positive entrapment efficacy 68.2% and the vesicle size 200 nm.
Transfersomes were successfully used in animals and humans, also for the transcutaneous peptide and protein delivery. Transfersomes: Transfersomes when applied under suitable condition can transfer 0.1 mg of lipid per hour and cm2 area across the intact skin. Liposomes are known to have considerable potential as drug carriers such as liposomal suspension, freeze dried and cream-based systems among many other liposomal formulations. View Niosome.pdf from CHEM 221 at Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences. INTRODUCTION Nano vescicular piroxicam delivery systems have the ability to improve the pharmacokinetics and increase biodistribution of therapeutic agents to target organs, resulting in improved efficacy . In this study a new drug-in-adhesive patch was fabricated using liposome-based nanocarrier. Moreover, transfersomes represent multilateral delivery for enhancing stability and using as a carrier of various drugs. Transdermal drug delivery systems are showing great improvement in delivering drugs as their advantages overweigh the disadvantages.
Transfersomes are ultraflexible vesicles made of phospholipids and an edge activator (EA) for transdermal delivery of hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules (1,2). Transfersomes are vesicular drug delivery systems which are used to enhance the penetration ability of drugs in a non-invasive manner.
The aim of this study was to improve the transdermal permeation of Diclofenac sodium, a poorly water-soluble drug, employing conventional liposomes, ethosomes, and transfersomes. The sample was stained by placing a drop of transfersomes suspension on a carbon coated grid. Liposomes were primarily of interest due to their intriguing cell-like structure, enabling the encapsulation of water-soluble drugs which needed to be transported through the skin to achieve transdermal delivery and systemic therapy.
The system can be characterized by in vitro for vesicle shape and size, entrapment efficiency, degree of deformability, number of vesicles per cubic mm. The concentration of MX in the formulation was determined by HPLC analysis after disruption of the vesicles (liposomes and transfersomes) with Triton X-100 (0.1% w/v) at a 1:1 volume ratio and appropriate dilution with PBS (pH 7.4). This novel vesicle was introduced by Song et al ., in the year 2012 and is characterized by having a high content of ethanol (30%) and an edge activator.
transfersomes, skin permeation, erectile dysfunction, patents.
Transfersomes (TFs) are highly deformable hydrophilic lipid vesicles that are able to penetrate the skin barrier spontaneously because of their characteristics. João Pedro Ferreira for the technical support with mass spectrometry experiments, and Prof. Transfersomes showed good characteristics such as entrapment efficiency, particle size, zeta potential, and polydispersity index (83.0 ± 2.2%, 75.95 ± 2 nm, − 13.6 ± 6 mv and 0.333, respectively). Antimicrobial peptides, also known as host defense peptides, have recently emerged as a promising new category of therapeutic agents for the treatment of infectious diseases. Transfersomes were used for non-invasive delivery of drugs into or across the skin. Characterization of GNTs formulations Entrapment efficiency: By ultra-centrifuged (14000 rpm) nano-transferosomal suspension for 30 min.
Transfersomes are sufficiently flexible to pass even through the pores appreciably smalle than their own size. The aim of this article is explanation the formation of micelle and vesicles, various types of vesicles, speciﬁ cally focusing on transfersomes. This research suggests that ibuprofen loaded transfersomes can be potentially used as a transdermal drug delivery system. Transfersomes possess an infrastructure consists of hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties together and as a result can accommodate drug molecules with wide range of solubility. The present work attempts to develop and statistically optimize transfersomes containing EGCG and hyaluronic acid to synergize the UV radiation-protective ability of both compounds, along with imparting antioxidant and anti-aging effects. PDF | Novel drug delivery systems are now a days is creating a new interest in development of drug deliveries. From the in vitro dialysis bag method, FS-2 showed the high rate of drug release by nearly 72% in 12 hrs.
Fabrication and characterization of sildenafil citrate loaded transfersomes as a carrier for transdermal drug delivery. The F1 transfersomes had spherical morphology with the highest entrapment efficiency of 85.80%, ninety percent of the particle size distribution (D V 90) was below 204.3 nm, polydispersity index of 0.125, zeta potensial of -36.3 mV and deformability index of 1.12. Brazil; 2 Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Chemistry Institute - University of Helsinki, A.I.
Ethosomes are other novel lipid carriers which are composed of phospholipid and have high ethanol concentration (20–40%). Photodynamic therapy INTRODUCTION Acne Vulgaris is the most common skin disease to affect younger humans.[1, 2] Different therapeutic approaches have been introduced into clinical practice. VESICULAR SYSTEMS In recent years, vesicles have become the vehicle of choice in drug delivery. Stability studies indicated that there was no significant physical change in vesicular formulation for 45 days at different temperatures. 1992 as ‘‘Transfersomes’’ were the first generation vesicular system made up of phospholipids and edge activators and were reported to be able to penetrate skin carrying therapeutic concentrations of drugs [5,6]. They can penetrate the skin easily and overcome the barrier function by squeezing through the intracellular lipid of the stratum corneum . The major limitation of the transfersomes using topically is its liquid character.
This is because of its deformable nature.
Transfersomes increase the elasticity of vesicles by redis-tribution of the edge activator and lipid in their milieu, where-as ethosomes act by fluidizing the lipids of both the skin as well as the vesicles (2–5). In the recent era, considerable focus is placed on novel drug delivery systems (NDDSs) as they accomplish two basic requirements.3 Drug delivery occurs at a predefined rate based on body needs. The Transfersomes can be evaluated by in vitro for vesicle shape and size, entrapment efficiency, degree of deformability, number of vesicles per cubic mm.
However, the drug delivery efficiency is highly limited by physiological barriers from the skin to the tumor, which cannot acquire desired therapeutic efficacy. Unfortunately, 5-FU per se shows a poor percutaneous permeation, thus reducing its anticancer effectiveness after topical administration. It has become the talk of the town in the field of drug delivery because of its better and easy accessibility. As transfersomes are difficult to retain at the site of application for sufficient time due to its very low viscosity. In vitro skin permeation of sinomenine hydrochloride PEGylated transfersomes edge activated by volatile oils. The obtained rhEGF transfersomes were characterized, including analyses of particle size distribution, polydispersity, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and deformability.
transfersomes were distributed between the cells via intercel-lular route, and accumulated in the subcutaneous tissue (Song & Kim, 2006). In the past few decades, an emerging drug delivery system that came into light is transdermal drug delivery system. The second surfactant has a HLB value greater than Hand may be based on an alkyl ether or a fatty acid ester. During the last decades, lipid vesicles have been deeply investigated attending that they are one of the most successful drug carrier systems. Miconazole nitrate (MIC) is an antifungal drug used for the treatment of superficial fungal infections. Transfersomes are self-regulating, mixed lipid aggregates containing edge activators within a phospholipid matrix so as to drastically reduce the value of its elastic module.
However, its penetration into skin is limited by its large molecular size.
Transfersome is a proprietary drug delivery technology, an artificial vesicle designed to exhibit the characteristics of a cell vesicle suitable for controlled and potentially targeted drug delivery. So, transfersomes can escape from narrow pores in the stratum corneum (one-tenth of their own diameter) under nonocclusive conditions. Described in the second chapter are the activities developed during my internship in community pharmacy. Transfersomes are elastic in nature, which can deform and squeeze themselves as an intact vesicle through narrow pores that are significantly smaller than its size. DSC studies confirmed a positive interaction of the components in the transfersome.
Various chemical enhancers were screened for skin permeation enhancement of ASPM. Though it is one of the attractive routes, transport of drug through the skin has remained a challenge. The active pharmaceutical ingredient is delivered at the target site, thereby improving its therapeutic effectiveness.4 However, lipid-based drug delivery systems promise to improve drug delivery.